"Francis Bellamy, a socialist and magazine editor, wrote the pledge in 1892 as part of a nationwide, school celebration of Columbus Day. His original pledge - which made no mention of God - included the phrase 'one nation, indivisible, with equality, liberty, and justice for all.' But several state school superintendents objected to the word 'equality' because they were against equality for women and blacks. Bellamy was forced to take it out.
The history of the pledge is one of creeping conservatism. The first edit to it preserved racism and sexism, while the second major edit in 1954 abolished the distinction between church and state."
Thursday, June 24, 2004
Although Annalee Newitz's article is not quite right on technical legal grounds, I'm fundamentally sympathetic to her position on the Pledge of Allegiance. Here is a snippet.